Toward a Normative-Integrated Model. I would be inclined to buy Focal Brand over Referent Brand. The model further articulated a set of hypotheses concerning moderator effects, such as the conditions which would enhance the effectiveness of value-expressive appeals, and similarly the conditions which moderate the effectiveness of utilitarian appeals.
By using that product, consumers would be able to fulfill their needs of self-esteem, self-consistency, social consistency, and social approval. A second improvement is that Congruity Theory offers a formula for predicting the direction and amount of attitude change those who are interested in the details of the formula should consult the reading list.
The social visibility of the brand helps establish consensual beliefs regarding the stereotyped image of the brand user. This measure was modified from a measure used by Sirgy, Johar, and Wood in which product conspicuousness was hypothesized and found to be positively related to product value-expressiveness.
It identifies three key dimensions that affect the extent to which self-congruity holds for volunteering organisations: This measure was modified from a measure used by Sirgy, Johar, and Wood in which product common usage was hypothesized and found to be negatively related to product value-expressiveness.
Identification of concepts 2. The findings provided construct validation support for the measure. Thus, the direct impact of self-congruity on brand attitude is not as strong as functional congruity.
In turn this self-congruity was related to satisfaction with a visit to the destination but not to intention to travel to the destination.
The researchers noticed that when a source was made to same something unreasonable -- like Eisenhower praised communism or Kruchev denounced communism -- attitude change predicted by Congruity Theory did not occur. As such, the new method assumes that self-image congruence is processed holistically or globally, not analytically or piecemeal as the traditional method assumed.
Expectancy-value researchers explain that a positive attitude is likely if the object of evluation is perceived to have characteristics that are positively valued. Journal of Advertising, 21 June Researchers wanted to explore every option, so some of the statements linked liked sources Eisenhower with liked concepts democracy and disliked sources Kruchev with disliked concepts: Hypothesis 5 states that functional congruity is likely to be more predictive of brand attitude under conditions of high than low brand involvement A median split was used to create two groups of brand involvement: I like Focal Brand better than Referent Brand.
Travel behavior is hypothesized to be by both self-congruity and functional congruity. A study was conducted involving eight different product categories and subjects.
It is argued that the destination environment influences the formation and change of the destination visitor image and the tourist-perceived utilitarian destination attributes. Perception and evaluation of functional attributes operate at a more-conscious level to influence consumer behavior.
Evidence for Predicting the Effectiveness of Value. Functional congruity is predictive of brand attitude. Therefore, the following hypothesis is deduced. This was also evident when the effects of the covariate was partialled out. Two regressions functional congruity treated as a covariate were run.
The model showed how value-expressive appeals involve a psychological process in which the brand user image is compared with the audience self-image i. Expressive versus Utilitarian Appeals: Please circle the number which is closest to the degree of importance you would attach to that characteristic when shopping for Brand X.
The pattern shows that functional congruity was somewhat more predictive under high rather than low differentiation conditions, with and without the covariate. Euclidean distances between the profile of the products and the self-concepts were correlated with preference rankings to determine whether respondents had greater preference for products more congruent with their self concepts Malhotra, The model is designed to integrate theoretical notions from Sirgy et al.
Indeed, most studies in consumer self-concept research in relation to consumer goods and services have measured self-congruity using some kind of mathematical discrepancy index between consumer self-concept and the product-user image Claiborne and Sirgy ; Sirgy ,a; Sirgy et al.
The overall pattern of results provided some support for the moderating effects of conspicuousness, uniqueness, involvement, and differentiation on attitude predictiveness of self-congruity and functional congruity.
To be heard above the cacophony of an ever increasingly competitive marketplace, successful marketers of new products must that their messaging and product positioning, functional as well as symbolic Chonreflect the image-of-self of these critically important customers.
A Reply to Johar and Sirgy. Data were collected on people's preferred volunteering organisation, their self-concept and their perceived image from eight volunteering organisations using an online self-completion survey. If we accept the notion that brand differentiation may be related to product involvement, we can logically conclude that brand differentiation may play a similar role in moderating the relationship between functional-congruity and attitude toward the product.
Regression analyses were run on these two groups, one set with a self-congruity as covariate. Destination atmospheric cues, such as the natural landscape, historic interests, hotel design, and tourism infrastructure, form the overall context within which tourists make travel and patronage decisions and are likely to have a significant impact on destination image Gartner Four studies were conducted to test the hypotheses that 1 consumer behavior is more strongly predicted by functional congruity than by self-congruity, and 2 functional congruity is influenced by self-congruity.Chon raised the positive and negative self-image congruity in the following situations: First, a “positive self-image congruity” occurs when there exists a state of positive self-congruity (a low discrepancy between one’s actual self-image and the product image) and a state of positive ideal self-congruity (a low discrepancy between one’s ideal self-image and the product image).
Full-Text Paper (PDF): Brand personality of tourist destinations: An application of self-congruity theory. Customers are motivated to hold a set of beliefs about themselves (a self-concept) and behave in certain ways to reinforce their self-concepts, supported in the self-congruity theory (Sirgy, ).
Self-congruity theory explains customers’ tendencies to purchase products. This paper investigates (1) if, and to what extent, self-congruity theory is applicable in tourism, (2) to what extent travel and person characteristics explain the degree of self-congruity, and (3) how the operationalization of self-congruity affects the conclusions about whether self-congruity holds in tourism.
Self-congruity can be considered a natural extension of self-concept.
The basic hypothesis in the self-congruity theory is that a consumer tends to select products or brands that correspond to one’s self-concept. This idea suggests that the greater the degree of congruence, the higher the probability of intention to purchase.
For the three volunteering organisations with high levels of awareness and distinct images, self-congruity theory held; that is, people who volunteer for them perceive those organisations as being more similar to their self-concept than other volunteering organisations.Download